Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Pamela is 30 years old and a married Filipina with a two-year-old daughter. She was born in the Philippines and came to the United States at age 13. She has a high school diploma and she attended Cal Poly Pomona and received her degree in Electrical Engineering. She works Monday thru Friday at least eight to nine hours a day and still takes work home. When Pamela was 16 years old, she had an appendectomy. She enjoys drinking alcohol every week with her friends during happy hour since she was 21 years old. Otherwise she has no other significant medical istory. Her family history is very significant especially from maternal grandmother and grandfather who passed way with diabetes and paternal grandmother who passed away with lung cancer and paternal grandfather who passed away with brain aneurysm. Her mother currently has high blood pressure and her father has nothing significant going right now. Just about a few days ago Pamela showed symptoms of abdominal pain and projectile vomiting that had her husband worried about her and took her straight to the emergency room. Her pancreatic enzymes were levated, her abdominal ultrasound and CT of the abdomen showed inflammation of her pancreas. She was then admitted for further evaluation. Introduction Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. With pancreatitis, the pancreas becomes inflamed, edematous, hemorrhagic, and necrotic. The pancreas is a long, flat gland that is located behind the stomach towards the upper abdomen. The pancreas produces enzymes, which help regulate the way your body digest glucose. Chronic pancreatitis is the progressive destruction of he pancreas as characterized by permanent loss of endocrine and exocrine function. The patient usually has chronic pain. Most studies of the pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis are performed with patients who drink alcohol as stated by Nair, Lawler & Miller (2007). The signs and symptoms for acute pancreatitis are upper abdominal pain, which could radiate to the back, you would feel worse after eating a meal and there will be nausea and vomiting. There will be tenderness when the abdomen is being touched. The signs and symptoms f chronic pancreatitis is also upper abdominal pain, weight loss, indigestion and oily and foul smelling stool. Complications of pancreatitis include breathing problems that could be due to the oxygen level is low in the blood, diabetes may occur since the pancreas is the organ that produces insulin, infection may occur and have the pancreas be vulnerable of bacteria, acute pancreatitis may lead to kidney failure which could lead to hemodialysis if it is not treated. Malnutrition could be another complication since the pancreas cannot break down the food because a few nzymes are being produced. If the chronic pancreatitis does not get treated and itÃ¢â¬â¢s still reoccurring it could lead to pancreatic cancer. Treatment for this disease is hospitalization to stabilize the patient. Having her not consume any food during her stay will help the pancreas recover fully. Once its in control then liquid diet and advancing the diet may be course of treatment. A nutritionist will be involved in her care. IV fluids will help her stay hydrated. Pain is another factor to this disease and pain medications will be prescribed. At discharge some alternative therapy might help alleviate the pain. As mentioned on WebMD Tylenol should be avoided (2011). Exercises, yoga and meditation might be of good help to distract her. It canÃ¢â¬â¢t treat what she has but it could keep her comfortable. Age and Development/Educational Need In EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental theory Pamela is a young adult in EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s that is Intimacy and Isolation. As long you have her trust in you, I believe using direct measurement as the approach of her method of learning. Just observing her behavior can help me distinguish hether or not she will be compliant. But during our session I noticed that she is willing and eager to learn and get well soon and she has shown that she is willing to be involved with her treatment. She has verbalized her understanding of what she needs to do once she goes home. Effect on Quality of Life Pamela would have to change her life style as she recovers from being diagnosed with Pancreatitis. She has to realize that whatever she has been doing on a daily basis would have to change. Her drinking of beer during happy hour every week has to stop. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s not a smoker, hich is great. She has to drink lots of fluids and eat less fat on her diet. She would have to eat more fruits and vegetables, consume more whole grains and water. Perceived Challenges Pamela has always enjoyed her social life in going out with her friends to happy hour every week. Having to let that go might be a little difficult, being that she has always been going out ritually since she was 21 years of age. She is considered to be a very busy person that she uses alcohol to relieve her stress. So having her to give alcohol might be somewhat of a challenge. Eventually, with the support of her family and her husband especially might help her get through this stride. I see a person who is willing and get better not just for herself but for her daughter. Summary Teaching Pamela has been an experience. She showed to be very knowledgeable and very receptive. She asked questions that were relevant to her condition and since she asked shows me that she interested in getting better. She is willing to receive the help that she needs. She has verbalized her understanding and will call her physician if any of the symptoms reoccur.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Executive summary Brisbane Brewing Company aims at providing uniquely brewed drinks for different segments of the society. It will be looking forward to improving its tasting room by considering the diverse drinking needs of various age groups in the society. As such, it will be producing non-alcoholic drinks for the age group 15-35 and alcoholic drinks for the ages 18-25. The reason for this approach is to meet statutory regulations and to make sure that there is no alcohol consumption by the underage. We also believe that by limiting the age of an adult to whom our alcoholic drinks can be sold will help up solve the drinking menace that affects many families. Opportunities The craft beer segment has grown has been on a steady rise since the late 70Ã¢â¬â¢s and has never lost a market share. With a 9% growth in 2013,a $4.1 billion market share, there still stands an overwhelming potential for Brisbane Brewing company to thrive as they meet the needs of the drinking population like never before. Most brewing companies had an average growth of 21% in the wake of the year 2004. Brewing companies were few at the time with most of them located in Victoria and the northern parts of Victoria. With alcoholic, beer, beverage accounting for slightly more than 60% of all alcoholic of all alcoholic beer retail sales, Brisbane Brewing Company has a good chance of exploiting the beer market. Australia has a large drinking population and Brisbane is a good spot for thriving economically. WeShow MoreRelatedCultural Brisbane Brewing Co : A Huge Impact On The Australian Population1548 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSociological Brisbane Brewing Co has had a huge impact on the Australian population as well as the population in other countries in which it operates because it is a large employer and retailer of breweries such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Due to its size and business scope it affects the lifestyles and lives of the people in the areas it operates. On the other hand beers are turning of and wines are becoming more popular, awareness on the effect of alcohol, decline of consumption on-Read MoreThe Internal And External Environment Of Di Bella Coffee3733 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagessuccess. Business Description In 2002 Phillip Di Bella opened up a small coffee-roaster operation in Brisbane, Australia, because of his dissatisfaction with customer service in the coffee industry (Di Bella Coffee, 2015). The former barista took 12 years to build his coffee chain into a highly successful wholesale business (Cadzow, 2014). Furthermore Di Bella Coffee is the only company in Australia to source 100% of its beans directly from the farmer (Brissie to the Bay, n.d.), in order toRead MoreSwot Analysis25582 Words Ã |Ã 103 PagesEnd of Book Case Studies 16/7/03 3:16 PM Page 642 end-of-book End-of-book: Case studies Q 643 case studies 19 Think design and performanceÃ¢â¬â think Sunbeam CafÃ © Series Nicole Stegemann, School of Management and International Business, University of Western Sydney Limited, a manufacturer of pumps, filters and security products. GUDÃ¢â¬â¢s acquired Sunbeam in 1996. After catering for predominately female needs, it was the male populationÃ¢â¬â¢s turn to benefit from SunbeamÃ¢â¬â¢s innovationsRead MoreEssay on Strategic Management Case Study: Starbucks Coffees9412 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesproviding good quality coffee and also in innovating new product. Content Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 Content Page 2 1.0 Introduction 5 1.1 Objective of the report 5 1.2 Overview of main strategic issues related to case 5 1.3 Scope of report 5 2.0 COMPANY DESCRIPTION AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION 5 3.0 EXTERNAL ANALYSIS 7 3.1 PEST Analysis 7 3.1.1 Political/ Legal 7 3.1.2 Economic 10 3.1.3 Social/ Cultural Environment 10 3.1.4 TechnologicalRead MoreCase Study of Starbucks7223 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pagesthe book to create a sensational headline, and it seemed everyone had a theory as to what went wrong. This case outlines the astounding growth and expansion of the Starbucks brand worldwide, including to Australia. It then shifts focus to describe the extent of the store closures in Australia, before offering several reasons for the failure and lessons that others might learn from the case. 2. Background Founded in 1971, Starbucks first store was in Seattle s Pike Place Market. By the time
Sunday, December 29, 2019
Racism is a quandary thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all too familiar in our modern society. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an issue that dates back thousands of years and is very much noticeable in American history. Since the domination of Native American land and African Slave Trade, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve come a long way, but racism still has a lingering presence and perhaps always will. The years between 1870 and 1900 began the age of segregation. The late 19th century in the US involved the increase of both nativism and racism. White supremacy lasted with traditions, and the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s patriotic fervor escalated the antiforeign tone. About ninety percent of blacks still lived in the South, and racist ideology fought to take discriminatory control. These ideas became known as the Jim Crow laws. The phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ characterized every African American, indicating no distinction between them. As immature as it may sound now, the phrase caused severe divisions between the whites and the blacks. Ã¢â¬Å"White On lyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"ColoredÃ¢â¬ signs proliferated on many facilities such as parks, theaters, toilets, buses, and drinking fountains. Blacks had to wait in line a lot longer until all whites were served and couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t try on clothing or accessories before purchasing them. Just when things couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get worse, even the federal courts have given up on living up to the equality that they so proudly boast. The Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions in the Civil Rights Cases of 1883 completely wiped clean the Civil Rights Act of 1875 and continued its discriminatoryShow MoreRelatedLEQ1206 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestime period prior to the development of the Atlantic slave trade and the time period right after its introduction and assess the impact of its emergence. To what extent did African slavery change American society? You may want to consider social, economic, and geographical. Prior to the Atlantic slave trade, the arable land along the South Atlantic seaboard were owned by wealth landowners and farmed primarily by either Native American slaves or white indentured servants. Beginning in the late 16thRead MoreRacism - A History : The Color Of Money1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReflection on Documentary: Racism Ã¢â¬â A History: The Colour of Money Documentary: Racism Ã¢â¬â A History: The Colour of Money provides a powerful illustration of the historical origins and basis of institutionalized racism. The six short episodes explore and chronicle centuries of European attitudes and practices regarding race and the transatlantic slave trade of Africans. It underscores how economics served as the driving force behind slavery. The documentary highlights that although slavery existedRead MoreAfrican People s Fight For Independence And Racial Equality Essay1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Racism The definition of racism is the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races. Nelson Mandela an iconic figure for the black movement once said Ã¢â¬Å"No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturallyRead MoreReparations For Slavery During The Civil War1712 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReconstruction Era after the Civil War many freed slaves were promised 40 acres of land, as a form of reparations.(Staff www.The Root.com) However, this became an empty promise and nothing was enforced to help African Americans become socially, economically, or politically leveled with white Americans since. African Americans were enslaved to work for big corporations and never received any form of wages after t he abolishment of slavery. Businesses that thrived off slave labor continued to succeed after the SlaveryRead More The Development of Racism Essay1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Development of Racism Slaverys twin legacies to the present are the social and economic inferiority it conferred upon blacks and the cultural racism it instilled in whites. Both continue to haunt our society. Therefore, treating slaverys enduring legacy is necessarily controversial. Unlike slavery, racism is not over yet. (Loewen 143) Racism can be defined as any set of beliefs, which classifies humanity into distinct collectives, defined in terms of natural and/or cultural attributesRead MoreCultural Exchange Between Europeans And Native Americans957 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe one most historically significant effect of the cultural exchange between Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans is racism. Racism is such a huge effect from this cultural exchange because the Europeans and Native Americans relationship was ruined by the Europeans thinking they were superior to them, the Europeans turned to Africans for trade as well as labor to build their society in the Americas knowing that they were lesser than themselves, and finally Europeans could build a new worldRead MoreU.s. Slavery Reparations972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShould African Americans Receive Reparations? Racism and hate have played a major role in United States history. These words have been the fuel behind slavery, inhuman treatment, and genocides. The Kosovo, Native Americans, Japanese, and African Americans are some of the prominent races that have been affected by racism and hate. The U.S. have given reparations to the victims of Kosovo, Native American, and Japanese, but no reparation have been given to African Americans. For fiveRead MoreThe Impact of the Slave Trade on Africa1298 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPrior to the Atlantic Slave trade, African way of life was well developed and prosperous in all aspects including their political, economic, cultural, and societal organizations. According to the documentary Ã¢â¬Å"King and CityÃ¢â¬ the political structure in Africa included royal officials, royal slaves, and noblemen, along with a constitutional monarchy and a judicial system. The judicial system was made up of two courts, the court of first instance and the co urt of appeal directly to the king also knownRead MoreNegative Impact Of Racism In America1702 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In American history one of the greatest issues that people face everyday is racism. To some this may seem like a bold word and they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly use this to define their actions, but belittling someone because of their skin color or physical attributes and making oneself feel superior by doing so is exactly what racism is. The dictionary definition states, Ã¢â¬Å" Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one s own race is superiorRead MoreThe Atlantic Slave Trade Does Still Impact Racism Today1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Atlantic slave trade does still impact racism today in the US. The struggles over slavery gave a civil war, segregation, Jim Crow laws, and finally a civil rights movement to help us move forward and progress. Many scholars argue that slavery created racism, in the artificial categories of black and white. Racism was created, at least in large part, to justify slavery. To dumb it down for people who really don t understand is racism is basically racial prejudice or discrimination. Some may
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Grigory Levadnyy Mr. Collins American Lit Honors 25 March, 2015 20th century soldier In the novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Things They Carried written by Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien, the author destroys the stereotypical archetype of the warrior in shining armor bravely fighting for the good of his country. OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien presents the soldiers who openly express their fears, homesickness, and regrets. He discusses the physical and emotional burdens that come comes along with war. The Ã¢â¬Å"thingsÃ¢â¬ that soldiers carry are both literal and figurative. They carry sentimental items to remind them of home such as amulets, weapons, survival gear, and even emotional wounds, also they carry grief, longing, terror, and most prevalently, guilt. In The Things They Carried by Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien, the burdens on these soldiers revealed the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion of how soldiers in Vietnam defines the soldier archetype. The mental burden that probably weighs the most on the hearts of the men is fear. This fear comes from many sources. The men are constantly haunted by the fea r that they may die. Ted LavenderÃ¢â¬â¢s death and how the men react to it show its impact on the soldiers. Kiowa expresses the sense of weight that the threat of death has on the men when he describes LavenderÃ¢â¬â¢s as Ã¢â¬Å"boom down, he said. Like cementÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 6). Something massive and heavy in both physical, as well as emotional ways. LavenderÃ¢â¬â¢s death is repeated several times throughout the story. The repetition is used in order to emphasize the fear in the men. This sceneShow MoreRelatedThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien892 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Vietnam War was a long, exhausting, and traumatic experience for all of the soldiers and those who came with them. The Things They Carried, by Tim O Brien illustrates the different affects the war had on a variety of people: Jacqueline Navarra Rhoads, a former nurse during the Vietnam war, demonstrates these effects within her own memoir in the book, The Forgotten Veterans. Both sources exemplify many tribulations, while sharing a common thread of suffering from mental unpredictability. DesensitizationRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslove to have it as good as we do. Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢BrienÃ¢â¬â¢s The Things They Carried discusses many veterans who experience the burden of shame and guilt daily due to their heroic actions taken during the Vietnam War. The book shows you how such a war can change a man before, during, and after itÃ¢â¬â¢s over.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As I reflect on the many conflicts America has been a part of, none can compare to the tragedies that occurred in The Vietnam war. As told in The Things They Carried (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien), characters such as NormanRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe theme pertains to everyone regardless of their background. It conveys the same ideas to people from all across our society. Lastly, a classic is timeless, which means it has transcended the time in which it was written. In Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢BrienÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Things They Carried, he offers a new, intriguing way to view war or just life in general and also meets all of the crucial requirements mentioned above to qualify it as a book of literary canon. Though this book is technically a war novel, many peopleRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1242 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien is obsessed with telling a true war story. O Brien s fiction about the Vietnam experience suggest, lies not in realistic depictions or definitive accounts. As OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien argues, absolute occurrence is irrelevant because a true war story does not depend upon that kind of truth. Mary AnnÃ¢â¬â¢s induction into genuine experience is clearly destructive as well as empoweringÃ¢â¬ (p.12) Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢s text, The Things they Carried, details his uses of word choice to portray his tone and bias. Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢BrienRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbut are set in the past and borrows things from that time period. A story that fits this genre of literature is The Things They Carried. The story is about Tim O Brien, a Vietnam veteran from the Unite States, who tells stories about what had happ ened when he and his team were stationed in Vietnam. He also talks about what he felt about the war when he was drafted and what he tried to do to avoid going to fight in Vietnam. The Things They Carried by Tim O Brien was precise with its portrayal of settingRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1004 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien is a veteran from of the Vietnam War, and after coming home from his duty he decided to be a writer. His work Ã¢â¬Å"The Things They CarriedÃ¢â¬ is about a group of soldiers that are fighting in the Vietnam War. The first part of the story talks mostly about physical items that each soldier carries, and also mentions the weight of the items as well. Though, there is one exception to the list of physical things. Lieutenant Cross is a character of the story, and Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢ Brien quickly states theRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien896 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTrouble without a doubt is what First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross c arried around his shoulders because he was out in war, where mistakes happen. Lost and unknown of his surroundings he had to lead his men into safety, while destroying anything they found. First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross only holds onto one thing for hope and that is Martha, the woman who he hopes is a virgin to come back to. Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢ Brien introduces symbolism by adding a character that has a meaning of purity and a pebble, which symbolizesRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien Essay832 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSummary: Ã¢â¬Å"By and large they carried these things inside, maintaining the masks of composureÃ¢â¬ (21). In Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢brienÃ¢â¬â¢s The Things They Carried, the American soldiers of the Vietnam War carry much more than the weight of their equipment, much more than souvenirs or good-luck charms or letters from home. They carried within themselves the intransitive burdensÃ¢â¬âof fear, of cowardice, of love, of loneliness, of anger, of confusion. Most of all, they carry the truth of what happened to them in the warÃ¢â¬âaRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMany authors use storytelling as a vehicle to convey the immortality of past selves and those who have passed to not only in their piece of literature but in their life as an author. In Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢BrienÃ¢â¬â¢s work of fiction The Things They Carried, through his final chapter Ã¢â¬Å"The Lives of the Dead,Ã¢â¬ O Brien conveys that writing is a matter of survival since, the powers of s torytelling can ensure the immortality of all those who were significant in his life. Through their immortality, OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien has the abilityRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ã Ã Our introduction stated that in Ã¢â¬Å"The Things They Carried,Ã¢â¬ author Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien tells us not directly of the soldiers of Vietnam, or the situations they find themselves in, but about the things they carry on their shoulders and in their pockets. These Ã¢â¬Å"thingsÃ¢â¬ identify the characters and bring them to life.Ã I find that to be true as the author unfolds the stories about war and the uncommon things one carries in to war both inadvertently and on purpose.Ã Ã Ã As it was noted: Stories about war Ã¢â¬â
Friday, December 13, 2019
This paper discusses four hypotheses to explain the effects of wolf predation on prey populations of large ungulates. The four proposed hypotheses examined are the predation limiting hypothesis, the predation regulating hypothesis, the predator pit hypothesis, and the stable limit cycle hypothesis. There is much research literature that discusses how these hypotheses can be used to interpret various data sets obtained from field studies. We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of Wolf Predation or any similar topic only for you Order Now It was concluded that the predation limiting hypothesis fit most study cases, but that more research is necessary to account for multiple predator Ã¢â¬â multiple prey The effects of predation can have an enormous impact on the ecological organization and structure of communities. The processes of predation affect virtually every species to some degree or another. Predation can be defined as when members of one species eat (and/or kill) those of another species. The specific type of predation between wolves and large ungulates involves carnivores preying on herbivores. Predation can have many possible effects on the interrelations of populations. To draw any correlations between the effects of these predator-prey interactions requires studies of a long duration, and tatistical analysis of large data sets representative of the populations as a whole. Predation could limit the prey distribution and decrease abundance. Such limitation may be desirable in the case of pest species, or undesirable to some individuals as with game animals or endangered species. Predation may also act as a major selective force. The effects of predator prey coevolution can explain many evolutionary adaptations in both predator and prey species. The effects of wolf predation on species of large ungulates have proven to be controversial and elusive. There have been many different odels proposed to describe the processes operating on populations influenced by wolf predation. Some of the proposed mechanisms include the predation limiting hypothesis, the predation regulating hypothesis, the predator pit hypothesis, and the stable limit cycle hypothesis (Boutin 1992). The purpose of this paper is to assess the empirical data on population dynamics and attempt to determine if one of the four hypotheses is a better model of the effects of wolf predation on ungulate population densities. The predation limiting hypothesis proposes that predation is the primary factor that limits prey density. In this non- equilibrium model recurrent fluctuations occur in the prey population. This implies that the prey population does not return to some particular equilibrium after deviation. The predation limiting hypothesis involves a density independent mechanism. The mechanism might apply to one prey Ã¢â¬â one predator systems (Boutin 1992). This hypothesis predicts that losses of prey due to predation will be large enough to Many studies support the hypothesis that predation limits prey density. Bergerud et al. (1983) concluded from their study of the interrelations of wolves and moose in the Pukaskwa National Park that olf predation limited, and may have caused a decline in, the moose population, and that if wolves were eliminated, the moose population would increase until limited by some other regulatory factor, such as food availability. However, they go on to point out that this upper limit will not be sustainable, but will eventually lead to resource depletion and population decline. Seip (1992) found that high wolf predation on caribou in the Quesnel Lake area resulted in a decline in the population, while low wolf predation in the Wells Gray Provincial Park resulted in a slowly increasing population. Wolf predation at the Quesnel Lake area remained high despite a fifty percent decline in the caribou population, indicating that mortality due to predation was not density-dependent within this range of population densities. Dale et al. (1994), in their study of wolves and caribou in Gates National Park and Preserve, showed that wolf predation can be an important limiting factor at low caribou population densities, and may have an anti-regulatory effect. They also state that wolf predation may affect the distribution and abundance of caribou populations. Bergerud and Ballard (1988), in their interpretation of the Nelchina caribou herd case history, said that during and immediately following a reduction in the wolf population, calf recruitment increased, which should result in a future caribou population increase. Gasaway et al. (1983) also indicated that wolf predation can sufficiently increase the rate of mortality in a prey population to prevent the populationÃ¢â¬â¢s increase. Even though there has been much support of this hypothesis, Boutin (1992) suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"there is little doubt that predation is a limiting factor, but in cases where its magnitude has been measured, t is no greater than other factors such as hunting. Ã¢â¬ A second hypothesis about the effects of wolf predation is the predation regulating hypothesis, which proposes that predation regulates prey densities around a low-density equilibrium. This hypothesis fits an equilibrium model, and assumes that following deviation, prey populations return to their pre-existing equilibrium levels. This predator regulating hypothesis proposes that predation is a density-dependent mechanism affecting low to intermediate prey densities, and a density-independent mechanism at high prey densities. Some research supports predation as a regulating mechanism. Messier (1985), in a study of moose near Quebec, Canada, draws the conclusion that wolf-ungulate systems, if regulated naturally, stabilize at low prey and low predator population densities. In MessierÃ¢â¬â¢s (1994) later analysis, based on twenty-seven studies where moose were the dominant prey species of wolves, he determined that wolf predation can be density-dependent at the lower range of moose densities. This result demonstrates that predation is capable of regulating ungulate populations. Even so, according to Boutin (1992) ore studies are necessary, particularly at high moose densities, to determine if predation is regulatory. A third proposal to model the effects of wolf predation on prey populations is the predator pit hypothesis. This hypothesis is a multiple equilibria model. It proposes that predation regulates prey densities around a low-density equilibrium. The prey population can then escape this regulation once prey densities pass a certain threshold. Once this takes place, the population reaches an upper equilibrium. At this upper equilibrium, the prey population densities re regulated by competition for (and or availability of) food. This predator pit hypothesis assumes that predator losses are density-dependent at low prey densities, but inversely density-dependent at high prey densities. Van Ballenberghe (1985) states that wolf population regulation is needed when a caribou herd population declines and becomes trapped in a predator pit, wherein predators are able to prevent caribou populations from increasing. The final model that attempts to describe the effects of predation on prey populations is the stable limit cycle hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that vulnerability of prey to predation depends on past environmental conditions. According to this theory, individuals of a prey population born under unfavorable conditions are more vulnerable to predation throughout their adult lives than those born under favorable conditions. This model would produce time lags between the proliferation of the predator and the prey populations, in effect generating recurring cycles. Boutin (1992) states that if this hypothesis is correct, the effects of food availability (or the lack of) should be more subtle than outright starvation. Relatively severe inters could have long- term effects by altering growth, production, and vulnerability. Thompson and Peterson (1988) reported that there are no documented cases of wolf predation imposing a long-term limit on ungulate populations independent of environmental influences. They also point out that summer moose calf mortality was high whether predators were present or not, and that snow conditions during the winter affected the vulnerability of calves to predation. Messier (1994) asserts that snow accumulation during consecutive winters does not create a cumulative impact on the nutritional status of deer and All of the four proposed theories mentioned above could describe the interrelationships between the predation of wolves and their usual north american prey of large ungulate species. There has been ample evidence presented in the primary research literature to support any one of the four potential models. The predation limiting hypothesis seems to enjoy wide popular support, and seems to most accurately describe most of the trends observed in predator-prey populations. Most researchers seem to think that more specific studies need to be conducted to find an ideal model of the effects of predation. Bergerud and Ballard (1988) stated Ã¢â¬Å"A simple numbers argument regarding prey:predator ratios overlooks the complexities in multi-predator-prey systems that can involve surplus killing, additive predation between predators, enhancement and interference between predator species, switch over between prey species, and a three-fold variation in food consumption rates by wolves. Ã¢â¬ Dale et al. (1994) stated that further knowledge of the factors affecting prey switching, such as density-dependent changes in vulnerability within and between prey species, and further knowledge of wolf population response is needed o draw any firm conclusions. Boutin (1992) also proposed that the full impact of predation has seldom been measured because researchers have concentrated on measuring losses of prey to wolves only. Recently, bear predation on moose calves has been found to be substantial, but there are few studies which examine this phenomenon (Boutin 1992). Messier (1994) also pointed out that grizzly and black bears may be important predators of moose calves during the summer. Seip (1992), too, states that bear predation was a significant cause of adult caribou mortality. How to cite Effects of Wolf Predation, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Questions: 1.Define what a Methodology is and the role it serves in Project Management. 2.Choose two Methodologies from this list to Compare and Contrast. 3.Discuss about the Processes relate to the Project Life Cycle (PLC). Answers: 1.The project methodology is based on handling the planning, execution, controlling and working on the team to achieve the goals with meeting the specific changes and the criteria. The project is based on producing the unique product along with services defined approach with the time constrains. The management needs to work on the project documentation with development process based on scope, time and the budget. The project management gets enhanced with the use of methodology as there are proper planning, designing, monitoring and then controlling all the engineering projects with the agile project management which focus on the adaptability to change the situations with consistent feedback from the clients. (Mayo et al., 2016). The chain for the project management is also for the defined resources, with the planning based on coordinating and working over the limited standards to execute the project 2.The waterfall project management is to handle the things with the concepts and the quality, where there is a defined assurance and the project completion. There is a need to maintain and work on the plans till there are no alterations needed. This methodology focus on the planning and then predict all the important processes. (Arthur et al., 2017). The agile project management has been to handle the different situations with the consistent feedback where the clients come with particular feedback for the members. The idea is about handling the clients and the management with proper production, that results in the change of the requirements with shift in the team assignments as well. The ideal process is for the new and similar smaller projects that are related to the accelerated development patterns. 3.The waterfall is related to the gathering of the documents, with proper approach and defined schedules, designing, code and the unit tests. (Vijaysarathy et al., 2016). This brings a change in the performance of the user acceptance testing, along with fixing the issues, with delivering the finished products as well. The representation is about how to review and approve the customer designing before it begins, where the waterfall works with the developments and the customers who agree on what needs to be delivered. Along with this, there is a proper designing and the planning, progress is measured with the scope to work. The development in the team with the involvement of the work is set with the active phase and the documentation is through coding. (Brinker et al., 2016). The exceptions are related to the reviews, status meetings and the presence of the customers. The designing is completed with the development where the approach is about handling the multiple software components. The agile methodology is for the team based approach with the focus on the rapid devoir and the application. The time boxed advantage is set into phases were the sprints are in defined duration to work and set the deliverables in a planned manner. For the project lifecycle, the customer has a very frequent way to handle the opportunities to work on what the decisions need to be set and how the customer is able to bring the strong sense of ownership with working on the project teams as well. The development is focused with the frequent directions that comes from the side of customer. The higher degree of the customer involvement with the project requirements where the development is dedicated to the project on the time boxed delivery and the reprioritization. There are items which are then allocated in a set timeframe. The additional prints are found to be handling the project costs with the involvement of the customer in a overall time and cost. The Agile development leads to the met hod of refactoring with the scope that includes the initial architecture and the designing. the system can easily hold the reduction with the quality that is pronounced on the large scale. (Larson et al., 2016). References Arthur, J. D., Dabney, J. B. (2017, April). Applying standard independent verification and validation (IVV) techniques within an Agile framework: Is there a compatibility issue?. InSystems Conference (SysCon), 2017 Annual IEEE International(pp. 1-5). IEEE. Brinker, K. R., Marcolina, R. C. (2016, November). A LESSON IN CONFLICT MITIGATION: INTEGRATING DIVERGENT DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES. InInternational Telemetering Conference Proceedings. International Foundation for Telemetering. Larson, D., Chang, V. (2016). A review and future direction of agile, business intelligence, analytics and data science.International Journal of Information Management,36(5), 700-710. Mayo, D. B., Johnson, T. C. (2016). Software Systems Engineering and Rapid Development Methods. Vijayasarathy, L. R., Butler, C. W. (2016). Choice of software development methodologies: Do organizational, project, and team characteristics matter?.IEEE Software,33(5), 86-94.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Were the three witches the main cause of Macbeths downfall? Essay Although the witches were a main cause of Macbeths downfall, the blame cannot lie solely with them. Rather, the unfortunate events were the result of poor judgement, human weakness, and adverse circumstances. The three weird sisters, as they are referred to in the play, planted a seed in Macbeths mind. This seed was the idea he could become king. They did this by saying: all hail Macbeth, hail to thee Thane of Glamis. then all hail Macbeth, hail to thee Thane of Cawdor. and finally all hail Macbeth, that shalt be King hereafter. Macbeth was already Thane of Glamis but he was puzzled because the Thane of Cawdor was still alive. When Macbeth heard of the Thane of Cawdors treachery, and that he was to take his title he began to wonder if the witches had spoken the truth. The seed that the witches had planted was growing. We will write a custom essay on Were the three witches the main cause of Macbeths downfall? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now However, although the witches planted the seed, Macbeth needed soil for it to grow in. This soil was his lust for power, wealth, and status. After he heard that he was to be Thane of Cawdor he stated, If chance will have me King, why chance may crown me without my stir. So he was suggesting that he might be able to take the throne without actually doing anything. Although at the time he murders King Duncan it is obvious that his greed has taken over. Lady Macbeth was another main cause of the tragedy. Macbeth was having doubts about the appalling thing he was considering, and Lady Macbeth convinced him it was the right thing to do. She called him a coward and told him I have given suck, and know how tender tis to love the babe that milks me: I would, while it was still smiling in my face, have plucked my nipple from its boneless gums, and dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as you have done to this. So in effect she was saying I would go so far as to kill my own child if I had sworn to it like you have sworn to this. Macbeths own weakness was to contribute towards his downfall. It was said in the play brave Macbeth well he deserves that name disdaining fortune, with his brandishd steel, which smokd with bloodied execution, like valours minion carvd out his passage, till he faced the slave: which he neer shook hands or, nor bade farewell to him, till he was unseamd him from the nave to the chops, and fixed his head upon our battlements. This was a statement from one of the soldiers fighting beside Macbeth praising his bravery and valour in battle. However, when it came to strength of character Macbeth was lacking. He let his wife make his earlier decisions for him by manipulating him with her words. He did not have enough strength of mind to make his own decisions about the actions he was about to commit. Although theÃ witches were a very large contributing factor to the downfall of Macbeth, they werent the only one. Had Macbeth not wanted to be king or lady Macbeth not have pushed him towards it then the outcome could have been somewhat different.