Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Disability Attorneys of Michigan Helps a Local Bar Manager Get Disability Benefits

Inability Attorneys of Michigan Helps a Local Bar Manager Get Disability Benefits Inability Attorneys of Michigan Helps a Local Bar Manager Get Disability Benefits Michelle was dealing with an effective bar when she endured a genuine head injury bringing about day by day headaches and memory misfortune. She needed to quit getting treatment since her protection was cancelled.We battled to get Michelle the government managed savings inability benefits she needed.If you can't work because of a physical or mental incapacity, call Disability Attorneys of Michigan, at 800-949-2900. We will make a solid effort to get you the incapacity benefits you need.Disability Attorneys of Michigan have helped a huge number of individuals win the inability benefits they need. Living with a handicap is sufficiently hard, yet without a normal pay life is a genuine struggle.If you are handicapped and unfit to work, call Disability Attorneys of Michigan for a free private interview. We’ll let you know whether we can assist you with getting a month to month check. In the event that we don't win your handicap case, you owe us nothing. We possibly get paid in the event that we win your incapacity benefits claim.Disability Attorneys of Michigan buckles down each day helping the handicapped of Michigan look for the inability benefits they need. On the off chance that you can't work because of a physical, clinical or mental inability, call Disability Attorneys of Michigan now for a free conference at 800-949-2900.Let Michigan’s Leading Social Security Disability Law Firm Help You Get The Benefits You Deserve.Disability Attorneys of Michigan. Empathetic Excellence. DA Michigan, Denied Claim, Disability Attorneys, Disability Attorneys of Michigan, Michigan Social Security Disability Law Firm, Social Security Disability, government managed savings inability law office, SSD Claim, TV Commercial

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Social Work Social Policy And Social Welfare Social Work Essay

Social Work Social Policy And Social Welfare Social Work Essay Regarding changes in Government strategy and philosophies of government assistance, banter the criticalness of the move from Victorian Pauper to 21st century administration client and its effect on social work practice and qualities. This task has utilized a chronicled timetable of Governmental changes to arrangements and laws as a foundation to discuss the move from Victorian Pauper to 21st century administration client. The separation between the rich and poor has consistently been an issue that various governments have confronted, managing it in an unexpected way, for instance Clement Attlees work Government in 1945 acquainted the government assistance state with give each British resident spread, paying little mind to pay or absence of it. The individuals who needed occupations and homes would be made a difference. The meaning of a Pauper as indicated by the Collins word reference is somebody who is moderately poor, in contrast with everyone or truly qualified for open cause. The meaning of an assistance client is somebody who sooner or later uses or gets wellbeing or social consideration administrations. (General Social Care Council) The term administration client is censured, as pundits Adams et al (2009) trust it centers around one component of the individual, inferring reliance, without considering different viewpoints and contend that the term puts the administration client in a weakened situation in their relationship with an expert, with power dwelling with this expert. The National Network of Service Users: Shaping our lives anyway observes the term administration client as positive, its a person who utilizes the administrations, they present force making a more grounded voice and having a more prominent capacity to shape administrations. (Levin 2004) Current British social approach has its establishment in the Poor Laws, dating from 1598 to 1948. The Poor Law (1601) gave a mandatory poor rate and helped set the poor to work. Anyway as the Parish was the essential territory of organization, and laws were upheld uniquely in contrast to ward to area with no set norms of care causing irregularities between territories. The Poor Law alteration act (1834) changed the current framework. Poor Law Unions were presented, areas were assembled, and those Unions would be the duty of a Board of Guardians. The Guardians were answerable for the organization of poor alleviation for their area, as opposed to leaving the obligation of organization in the hands of individual wards and townships. Workhouses were presented and supported, one workhouse in every association to give poor alleviation. This Act expressed that no capable individual was to get some other assistance other than in the workhouse. The motivation behind the workhouse was to allow people to enter and leave as they preferred and they would get free food and settlement, anyway a s time passed concern developed as to the appearing abuse of the workhouse. Subsequently the qualification models for section to the workhouse was then adjusted. Life in the workhouse was to be made as pitiless as it was outside. The pitiable reality offered, and the shame appended to being a prisoner, guaranteed that just the genuinely denied utilized them. A prison style arrangement of isolation for people implied that even families must be isolated, through and through unique in relation to 21st Century social work esteems which uphold a more grounded pledge to keeping families together, with youngster security administrations and kid government assistance offices offering help to guarantee family protection. (Payne, 2005) It was in 1869 that The Charity Organization Society (COS) was shaped to bring together the numerous littler wellsprings of alleviation and make arrangement increasingly productive and viable. The COS saw that altruistic help was required and accepted that their point was to arrive at all families, however were uncertain how the cash had recently been spent. COS set out a plan of budgetary assistance, presenting nearby panels, who at that point raised assets and appropriated these to families out of luck. Like numerous causes today, there are as yet numerous families who dont request help in light of religion, language, pride or on the grounds that they don't know that help might be accessible. (Family Action) The point of COS was to convince good cause to combine their assets, which may then be circulated all the more deliberately. Anyway the people caused must be esteemed equipped for getting self supporting. Value was considered before any altruistic assistance was given. The indi viduals who werent considered commendable were left to dejection, the Society viably concluding that as they esteemed there to be no desire for their recovery, that to help them would be a misuse of constrained assets which would be better gone through somewhere else with people or families who could consequently lift themselves out of destitution and reliance. (Campling, 1996) The COS model was spearheading in considering the outcomes on the off chance that they helped each person, as they figured this would prompt reliance and embellishment so as to get cash. COS was likewise shaped with the goal of accomplishing a lessening in the magnanimous use because of more noteworthy productivity and the economy of scale, and in this sense the COS mirrored the more extensive belief system of the mechanical transformation. Current Social Work destinations comparably look to accomplish an incentive for cash, with the Audit commission characterizing an incentive for cash as the most ideal equalization of economy, proficiency and viability. While the 21st century social laborer attempts to manage the requirements of everybody, in any case, the dissemination of necessities is lopsided and changes continually. To guarantee quality is reliable consideration plan surveys are checked and administration clients might be associated with quality circles, drawing in them in choosing whats best. Direct installment plans are likewise offered to a minority gathering of administration clients to let them settle on and alter their own social consideration. The prima ry issue Social Services face is the potential effect of the dynamic and variable financial and world of politics in which they should work. While attempting to give individualized consideration bundles they need to guarantee that its successful in regard to cost. Likewise there is developing acknowledgment that various minority gatherings might be barred from getting to administrations, for example, Social Work administrations and, additionally those administrations which have beforehand not been given in socially proper manners. (Making a decent living, 2010) Appropriate advances will consequently should be taken to uphold against unfair practice and hostile to harsh practice, while thinking about how to give assistance in getting to administrations to minority gatherings. The COS immediately found that more than money related guide was expected to support beggar. Passionate and other commonsense assistance was likewise required, for instance help with discovering work. COS volunteers were prepared to offer such extra assistance and, along these lines, the conventional preparing offered by COS can be viewed as the herald of present day social work preparing and capabilities. They embraced a methodology which endeavored to break down the issue. Working with the individual and family to assist them with accomplishing an enduring arrangement so all could be kept in their recognizable surroundings. This methodology was very tedious, and the methodology the specialist took to examine the individual was truly frightful. This methodology is the premise of the present Social Work casework approach which is currently profoundly reprimanded. Holman (1993) proposes that the casework approach just covers social and political commitments in people lives, subsequently assisting with keeping up their circumstance. There are presently different methodologies that emphasis on decreasing disparity. Which research the social and political reasons just as the people with regards to why they are in destitution. Another statement for Social Work currently features the need to utilize an assortment of approaches as the need to battle neediness and segregation is more noteworthy than at any other time. Numerous who attempted to utilize the COS standards thought that it was hard to dismiss people who required assistance. Different methodologies were recently acquainted with assistance more people. The Settlement House Movement (1884) was one of these. Its standards concentrated on college volunteers working with the poor in their extra time, offering instruction. Its point was to accomplish common regard between the classes. This methodology concentrated on enabling poor people, helping them to support themselves. Society likewise profited by this model. It concentrated on a progressively organized examination of neediness and its effect on human conduct by rehearsing intercessions at a network level. This is required currently to support little networks and the people inside it. The idea of social work practice at that point changed and concentrated on people. A critical component was hearing customers voices and the unique information on the experts working with them to help howev er they could. (Adams et al, 2009) Utilizing these models the Government laid the premise of things to come social administrations. The significant concern being that all regions ought to be given similar administrations. These new administrations were given away from The Poor Law to dodge the affiliation. Current Social Work despite everything has its irregularities, anyway the White Paper Tackling Health Inequalities Program of Action (Department of Health, 2003), centers around various approaches to even out access to human services, for instance working with individuals who face covering medical issues for example more established individuals who have sick wellbeing and are in destitution. Social Workers are focussing on auxiliary avoidance, as this kind of anticipation can affect more people. A significant report created with respect to the government assistance of people was the Beveridge Report (Department of Health, 1942). This report concentrated on how Britain could be modified after the war. In 1945 work was chosen and vowed to present a government assistance state. The government assistance state included presenting new administrations. These incorporated the National Health Services and Housing Acts. The government assistance state was created to encoura

Friday, August 21, 2020

Financial and accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Budgetary and bookkeeping - Essay Example Second, in budgetary bookkeeping, fiscal reports are considered significant while clients of the board bookkeeping center around bookkeeping reports as the most significant items (Stolowy and Lebas 2007). Third, in money related bookkeeping, the IFRS or IAS figure out what should be remembered for monetary reports and proclamations while in the board bookkeeping, supervisors figure out what they need caught in bookkeeping reports. Fourth, money related bookkeeping centers around authentic data while the board bookkeeping fundamentally uses figures or spotlight on future data (Rajasekaran and Lalitha 2011). Fifth, while money related bookkeeping put accentuation on information unwavering quality and objectivity, the board bookkeeping underlines on importance of information. 6th, money related bookkeeping yields reports about the whole organization while the executives bookkeeping yields reports that suit the requirements of the administration. Seventh, monetary information are normall y liable to review check while the board information are no liable to inspecting process (Rajasekaran and Lalitha 2011). Organizations are required to plan fiscal report toward the finish of their exchanging periods to uncover data that is regarded vital for different clients of budget summaries. 1) Potential speculators: Potential financial specialists require fiscal summaries to assist them with surveying monetary suitability of placing their interest in an organization. In light of the data uncovered in the budget report, for example benefits in benefit and misfortune account, speculators can conjecture future profits. Additionally, potential speculators may utilize budget report figures to check the hazard related with putting resources into a specific organization (Gibson 2009). For example, financial specialists may utilize high change in the announced benefits of an organization as a sign of high hazard. Therefore, budget reports help forthcoming financial specialists in settling on speculation choices. 2) Shareholders: Financial explanations help

Friday, June 5, 2020

How does Marxist theory view class - Free Essay Example

No commentator has seriously doubted the central importance of the theory of class for [Marxs] workà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦it is as essential for his theory of history as it is for his analysis of the dynamics of capitalist society. (Dahrendorf, 1959, 8) This essay examines this assertion and looks at where and how class operates within Marxs comprehensive socio-economic theory. It analyses class as both a description and concept, and as a motor of social change à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" as both a structural, static element and as a dynamic, transformational one. The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggles are the opening words of The Communist Manifesto (Marx Engels, 1967, 79). The entire first section of   the tract is devoted to a description of classes throughout the history of humankind and how, in his own age, the emergence of two dominant classes à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" bourgeoisie and proletariat à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" was simplifying the social structure and making it ripe for revolutionary, emancipatory social change. Although Marxs motivation for his wish to see social transformation was morally driven in the first instance, all his works eschew arguments based upon morality (Wheen, 1999). Instead, the emphasis is upon political imperatives and economic determinism, attempting to make his arguments and theories scientific and rational rather than appealing to a more intangible sense of justice and fairness. For Marx, historical progress itself was the driver of social change, while social classes were the agents of transformation. Class definition is determined not by income or status, but by property relations which, in turn, are the result of t he production process structure (Parkin, 1979). By presenting his social theories and his view of history in terms of class, such an epistemological and methodological model supported not only his analysis of society, but also his assertion that the proletariat would be the ultimate agent of human liberation ushering in a better world. Friedrich Engels claimed that Marxs exposition of Scientific Socialism or Historic Materialism revealed immutable laws similar to the contemporaneous theories of Charles Darwin in the field of evolutionary biology (Bullock Stalybrass, 1983). However, in claiming to discern scientific laws governing the workings and development of human society, Marxs analysis ran the risk of becoming a predeterminist philosophy, or a form of historicism (Honderich, 1995). Engels argued that in order to make a science of Socialism, it had first to be placed upon a real basis. (Engels, 1970, 43) The realness or authenticity elaborated by Marx and Engel placed the co ncept of class at the heart of subsequent Marxist philosophy. This centrality emerged from a conflict within the political left in the mid-19th century. Marx embarked upon a sustained campaign of argument and vilification against those he labelled utopian socialists, notably Henri de Saint-Simon, Pierre Proudhon, FranÃÆ' §ois Fourier, Eugen DÃÆ' ¼hring and Robert Owen. Although he conceded that these individuals were well-meaning, genuine believers in the principles of socialism, and successful in demonstrating through their works the ethical essence of socialism, nonetheless their paternalistic ideas were insufficient to produce comprehensive human emancipation (Wheen, 1999). They gave too little heed to the importance of class antagonism as the fundamental driver of the struggle for liberation. In The Communist Manifesto, Marx argued that the utopian socialists committed their mistakes because the urban working class had not yet developed sufficiently for the signifi cance of class conflict to be recognised (1848). However, this mild rebuke was followed by much more acerbic criticism. He asserted that setting up idealistic experimental communities aimed at showing there was an alternative to the exploitative nature of the capitalist mode of production removed the participants from the wider society and made them irrelevant. Furthermore, the utopians writings, theories and actions demonstrated not just an ignorance of, but also a denial of, the central importance of class struggle. Consequently, in seeking reconciliation between bourgeoisie and worker, such collusion made them class traitors (Marx Engels, 1967). By adopting such an uncompromising position, Marx had committed himself to an analysis that relied upon class and class conflict to explain the past and predict the future. Other social divisions, such as race, gender, ethnicity and religion were thereafter relegated to being largely the products of economic relations à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" part of the superstructure of society rather than the more powerful base comprising productive forces and the relations of production (Hughes-Warrington, 2000). Marx argued that throughout history successive waves of dominant classes, such as patricians, feudal lords and aristocrats, had merely replaced each other as exploiters of similarly successive underclasses, such as slaves, plebeians and serfs. The bourgeoisie were just the latest in a line of oppressors, but Marx asserted that they were both the apogee and the last of the exploiters (Muravchik, 2002). The emergence of the bourgeoisie superseding the aristocracy as the ruling elite was the result of the replacement of feudalism by capitalism and was characterised by industrialisation. Industrialisation was founded on the factory system which produced a new class à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the proletariat. When this increasingly impoverished hired-hand sector with no part in the ownership of the means of production finally rose up in revolt against their masters, their subsequent rule would not, indeed could not, be oppressive because, consisting of almost everyone, they would have no one to exploit (Hughes-Warrington, 2000). While the proletariat would eventually usher in socialism and eventually communism, this would not happen until they were organised. Furthermore, such organisation could not occur before the working class became aware of the nature of their oppression à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" namely that it was one class dividing and exploiting another rather than the moral failures of powerful individuals. This would be difficult because, It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness. (Marx, 2014, 11-12) If their consciousness was rooted in their class position, how could this chicken-and-egg scenario be resolved? This was where the concept of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat became such a useful tool for later actua l parties of government which claimed to be Marxist, in particular the regime of Stalin. Asserting that the Bolshevik/Communist Party was the vanguard of the proletariat and imbued with a consciousness somehow not beholden to their social existence, this served the purposes of allowing an elite to claim to be part of the emancipationist class, provided a useful scapegoating catch-all category of bourgeois for condemning and liquidating opposition, and created a reservoir of willing, obedient lower-level-leadership acolytes from the actual working class who were dependent upon accepting the ideology and direction of that elite for their accession to, and continued holding of, their privileged positions (Daniels, 2007). However, in Marxist theory this was not how it was supposed to develop. Class consciousness, or the self-awareness of a shared, unified and unifying experience, was to be the mechanism by which revolutionary consciousness developed as workers became properly aware o f the locus of their grievances rather than merely experiencing untargeted, unfocused discontent. It was the very struggle against exploitation which would produce the conditions where workers were forced to organise collectively and behave as a class, a process which would create the awareness of class and distinct class interests (Callinicos, 2010). Marx argued that keeping workers separate from each other, part of a wider phenomenon of alienation experienced by wage labourers, was an essential component of the capitalist/bourgeois system of control (Hampsher-Monk, 1992). However, just as factory-based capitalism produced the industrial proletariat, so too did it produce shared ideas which inclined the working class towards socialist solutions to their unjust existence. What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own gravediggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable. (Marx Engels, 1967, 94) Marxism sees the bourgeoisie as naturall y taking measures to defend their class interests as well as their individual interests. Their most potent weapon is the state, Marx claiming that the executive of the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie. (Marx Engels, 1967, 82)   Marx viewed the state negatively and did not see it as a forum through which human emancipation and social justice could be achieved. The state was neither natural, neutral nor eternal, but simply a product of the era in which capitalism held sway. It was part of societys superstructure, a view reinforced and elaborated upon by Lenin in 1917 in The State and Revolution: The state is a product and a manifestation of the irreconcilability of class antagonisms. The state arises where, when and insofar as class antagonisms objectively cannot be reconciled. And, conversely, the existence of the state proves that the class antagonisms are irreconcilable. (Lenin, 1917, 9) Analysis of the state as the servant of capitalist vested interests demonstrates further the central and fundamental role class plays in Marxist theory. It effectively argues that there is a cohesive ruling class running capitalist societies. Despite frequent conflicts of interest among themselves, its constituent parts are ultimately united in defence of an economic and social system which works to their benefit. This dominant class, in contemporary Marxist theory, comprises not just the owners of capital, property and land, but includes senior management in large corporations, the top layers of the civil service, the judiciary, the diplomatic corps, military leaders and most of the leading figures in right-wing political parties, particularly conservative ones, although increasingly also figuring within centrist parties which have accepted the current neoliberal orthodoxy. While the owners of the means of production rarely hold any of the reins of political power, they are part of the same elite which provid es the political leadership. The state is almost permanently under the control of the ruling class of the age, while parliamentary politics and democratic elections are in large measure faÃÆ' §ades concealing the self-interest and ultimate control of this powerful class-based elite (Coxall Roberts, 1990). Among more recent strains of Marxian theory, Structuralist Marxists have contributed most substance to modern class analysis. Among their most salient arguments is the assertion that contemporary liberal-democratic states steer popular perceptions of political struggle away from class-conflict interpretations and towards discourses framed in terms of rights and justice. Although the state colludes in upholding and promoting a social and economic hierarchical class system, it successfully blinds the exploited to their exploitation (Resch, 1992). Furthermore, the contemporary ruling class prefers a state which does not overtly promote their material interests, but quietly upho lds their political interests. Among other activities, it does this in democratic states by redefining workers, who are in reality a class of people, as political subjects and autonomous citizens, thus isolating them from each other under the guise of upholding the rights of the individual. The aim is to hide the fact of class relationships between and among classes, and to persuade people into accepting that their interests are part of a fictional national interest and that the state is the surest and most legitimate defender of their freedoms and material interests (Poulantzas, 1973). This study agrees with the opening quotations assertion about the centrality of class to Marxist thought, and would add that it was also critical for the (overly) optimistic predictions of imminent proletarian revolution in The Communist Manifesto. The decision to use class as the epistemological prism through which to analyse socio-economic dynamics was essential for a theory which sought to expl ain almost all of human historys trajectory towards the contemporary situation of the mid 19th century à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" then project it forward as a teleological theory with an endpoint in the fairly near future. Class was the unifier of the theory, the motor of change and the provider of agency. Originally embarked upon to explain how the European transition from feudalism to capitalism occurred, it gradually transmuted into a metahistory of humankind (Hampsher-Monk, 1992). However, Marxs knowledge of history was selective and sketchy, and the further back in time that he went, the more speculative it became (Hobsbawm, 2011). Critically too, his analysis was Eurocentric, dismissed religion too easily, omitted gender relations, and was surprisingly dismissive of the power of ideas vis-ÃÆ'  -vis economic developments (Hughes-Warrington, 2000). As an explanatory tool, as a justification for revolution, as a motivator, and as a call to action Philosophers have hitherto only in terpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it, (Marx, 1994, 98) the concept of class has proved a vital, useful and enduring tool. Although global socio-economic structures have moved on immeasurably since Marx was writing a century-and-a-half ago, not only the concept of class, but also the very terminologies used by him (proletariat, bourgeoisie, relations of production) are still the coinage of discourse in much Marxist writing. Depending upon one ones point of view, this is either an attestation of the enduring truths contained within his perceptive writings, or else a dogmatic adherence to semi-sacred texts akin to biblical fundamentalists refusing to accept that the Old Testament is anything other than literal truth. Word Count: 2141 Bibliography Bullock, A. Stallybrass, O., 1977. The Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought. London: Fontana. Callinicos, A., 2010. The Revolutionary Ideas of Karl Marx. 2nd Edition ed. London: Bookmarks. Coxall, B. Roberts, Lynton, 1990. Contemporary British Politics. London: Macmillan. Dahrendorf, R., 1959. Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Daniels, R. V., 2007. The Rise and Fall of Communism in Russia. New haven: Yale University Press. Engels, F., 1970. Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (1880). New York: Mondial. Hampsher-Monk, I., 1992. Modern Political Thought. Oxford: Blackwell. Hobsbawm, E., 2011. How to Change the World: Tales of Marx and Marxism. London: Abacus. Honderich, T., ed., 1995. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hughes-Warrington, M., 2000. Fifty Key Thinkers on History. London: Routledge. Lenin, V., 1917. The State and Revolution. London: Central Books. Ma rx, K., 1994. Karl Marx: Selected Writings. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. Marx, K., 2014. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859). London: Forgotten Books. Marx, K. Engels, F., 1967. The Communist Manifesto (1848). Harmondsworth: Penguin. Muravchik, J., 2002. Marxism. Foreign Policy, Nov/Dec, Issue 133, pp. 36-38. Parkin, F., 1979. Marxism and Class Theory: A Bourgeois Critique. New York: Columbia University Press. Poulantzas, N., 1973. Political Power and Social Classes. London: New Left. Resch, R. P., 1992. Althusser and the Renewal of Marxist Social Theory. Berkeley: University of California Press. Wheen, F., 1999. Karl Marx. London: Fourth Estate.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Social And Cultural Diversity For Counseling Association...

The object of this paper is to give an overview of social and cultural diversity by identifying personal memories of contacts with other cultures and describing experiences associated with these contacts. This paper will give a complete definition, with regard to every detail, of what it means to be a subtle racist. In addition, it will give an account of why people of the same ethnic group can have significant differences in their values and perceptions of the world. Finally, this paper will state completely, with regard to every detail, how the American Counseling Association (ACA) and National Association for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors (NAADAC) codes of ethics will inform the practice of social and cultural diversity, the role of cultural sensitivity and communication styles in treatment, also how social and cultural diversity courses will help me in a future practice as a counselor. Definition of Cultural Diversity Cultural Diversity can define as the state of being different relating to the ideas, customs, and social behavior of a society. When discussing cultural biases, we are all made up of our cultural influences and inherit some of the racial, and gender, biases of our society. â€Å"Everyone (regardless of race, gender, or sexual orientation) possesses biased beliefs, attitudes, and stereotypes toward others† (Sue Sue 2013). Identifying my Personal Biases When Identifying my personal biases: as a black American male, I have biases when it comes to myShow MoreRelatedPrinciples of Psychopathology: Diagnosis and Treatment4567 Words   |  19 PagesCo-disorders of Substance Abuse Principles of Psychopathology: Diagnosis and Treatment Abstract Addiction in general, but opioid dependence has become a billion dollar business for the treatment industry. Heroin used to be the only widespread opioid used. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Scientific Method

Question: Describe aboutthe specified linking between obesity and social jetlag. Answer: Introduction The research article is based on the Dunedin Study, which was published in the International Journal of Obesity. The journal has been describing the specified linking between obesity and social jetlag. The social jetlag is defining the diversified sleeping patterns during the workdays and the weekends (Arora and Taheri 2015). The article is sequentially outlining such relationship between the social jetlag and the different types of the diseases that caused due to the obesity. The person who is affected with severe form of obesity usually faces the disease related to the metabolic disorder, diabetes, and inflammation. The hypothetical value described in this article is based on the regular disruption about the patters of sleep. The difference between the sleeping patterns in work days and weekends has been structured. The explanation of the researcher in this article is somewhat creating the harmful effects on the metabolism. As per the article, it has been seen that many of the workers were found with the different types of sleeping styles during the work days and weekends. The duration between the free days and the working days is considered as metabolic unhealthy due to the little fraction between these two timings (Arora and Taheri 2015). However, the study fails to prove the lie-ins that are created due to the obesity related diseases. The journal highlights the sleeping patterns and health simultaneously. In considering such study, the fact can be accepted that due to obesity, people like to lie more in a resting manner. However, the study includes the limitation regarding the explanation ab out the diseases that are affecting the health. Method The article is featuring the cross sectional analysis of a cohort study, which attempts to focus on the clear association between the metabolic markers and obesity. This association is somewhat trying to identify the diseases that are caused due to obesity and social jet lag. The research involves 815 non-shift workers who participated in an ongoing health care programme, which was famous as Dunedin Longitudinal Study. These participants were born between 1972 and 1973 for investigating the bondage between behaviour and health. The people of 38 years of ages were asked to fill a survey form that was filled up with the questions related to the sleep duration, social jet lag, and chronotype. In this research the measurement of social jet lag was performed by subtracting each persons midpoint of sleep during working days and from the free days (Parsons et al. 2015). Therefore, if a person slept from 12 am to 8am during the workdays, the midpoint should be 4am in this case (Parsons et al . 2015). Similarly, if the person slept from 1am to 11am during the free days, the midpoint was 6am in such case. Hence, the social jet lag would differentiate for 2hours. Result In considering the basic result extracted from the research method is indicating the association of social jet lag with the numerous metabolic dysfunctions as well as obesity. Hence, the higher rate of the social lag jet is leading towards metabolic unhealthy obesity. The obese individuals of metabolic unhealthy is somewhat liked with the high blood levels of CRP, which is an indicator of inflammation and glycated haemoglobin (Rutters et al. 2014). It has been seen that individuals with higher score if social jet lag is indicating the odd ratio of 1.2% whereas the 95% of confidence interval (CI) is signifying the rate 1.0 to 1.5. In such cases, the risks will be increased. The researcher interpreted the result by referring the consistent possibilities (Knutsson 2003). The researcher even discussed different types of sleeping patterns between two hours. It marks the BMI rate and considers the biomarkers. The socioeconomic status and effects of smoking are also taken into account to ad dress the consequences. The article reflects the linear regression based on the continuous outcomes derived from BMI (Body Mass Index) or the waist circumference or fat mass. Similarly, the logistic regression highlights the outcomes of dichotomous aspects, which is mainly based in the syndrome of metabolism and obesity. The article also provides the idea of the variable analysis based on social jetlag. The first model (model 1) is featuring the controls for sleep duration, social jetlag, and chronotype whereas model 2 is adding the covariant for smoking. Hence, it can be interpreted that the formulation of the social jetlag is not only influenced by the working hours, also by smoking level. Similarly, the model 3 describes the covariant of model 2. As per the article review, it can be inferred that the researcher has assessed the violations of linearity, homoscedasticity, and visual inspections of histograms. It is to be indicated that P value depends on the efficiency of the variables that has the string influence on the subject matter. The article includes different inflation rates, which determine the exact issue faced by the people. The covariant in the model 3 is classified into different segments. The inflation rate of social jetlag is 1.34, sleep duration is 1.04, and current smoking is 1.20. Therefore, the influence of the social jetlag is much foreseen. This is an appropriate statistical test that has been interpreting the effects of the social jetlag. Since, the discussion is based on the variables related to the obesity and social jetlags, this particular statistical form is indicating the P value. The analysis of the P value along with the visual inspection is determining the discussion based on the subject matter. Conclusion The research has been conducted among 815 non-shift workers. The research study has been much analysing the difference in sleeping patterns of the people in their working days and free days. These patterns are associated with the metabolic unhealthy nature and obesity. The study also defines the analytical formulation through the statistical data exploration. However, this cross-sectional study has the proper limitation as well. This cross sectional study has been reflecting the sleep patterns and health simultaneously. On the other hand, the study fails to prove the regular lie-ins, which are creating the severe form of obesity related diseases. Many of the underlying factors have been influencing the apparent relationship between the metabolic makers and obesity. The limitation of the statistical analysis is that this process does not include diet chart of the people in depending on their exercise level. However, in keeping concentration on the statistical analysis, the researcher cannot recommend to eliminate lie-ins. Moreover, it would be better if the employees will be offered with flexible hours to work. In such cases, the staffs would be able to synchronise their week days with the days in weekends. The improvement in the lie-ins would be highlighted more specifically. References Arora, T. and Taheri, S., 2015. Associations among late chronotype, body mass index and dietary behaviors in young adolescents.International Journal of Obesity,39(1), pp.39-44. Knutsson, A., 2003. Health disorders of shift workers.Occupational medicine,53(2), pp.103-108. Parsons, M.J., Moffitt, T.E., Gregory, A.M., Goldman-Mellor, S., Nolan, P.M., Poulton, R. and Caspi, A., 2015. Social jetlag, obesity and metabolic disorder: investigation in a cohort study.International Journal of Obesity,39(5), pp.842-848. Rutters, F., Lemmens, S.G., Adam, T.C., Bremmer, M.A., Elders, P.J., Nijpels, G. and Dekker, J.M., 2014. Is social jetlag associated with an adverse endocrine, behavioral, and cardiovascular risk profile?.Journal of biological rhythms.